Nationalism in China was a response to the humiliations suffered at the hands of foreign imperialists.I In the nineteenth century, China lost wars with Britain, Russia, France, and Japan, and in addition to these countries, fourteen other countries, including the United States, seized the chance to force concessions from China. What kind of “Western developments” was cultural nationalism against during the Meiji Restoration? Korea and Manchuria as a buffer zone against Russia, This was thought to be especially important in relation to the Russo-Japanese war, for example if Russia were to attempt a new attack, Due to Korea's proximity to Japan, Korea could provide a threat if under the rule of some other nation, Japanese civil war in 1868-89 had dissolved the Samurai class, so there was a lack of organized defence, Manchuria's importance: rich with minerals, living space for growing population and buffer zone, By showing the Western powers what Japan was capable of, expanding became something they thought they had to do to remain in a respectable position, the Amur River Society was established in 1901 to promote expansionism, Started as a smaller society, but grew in popularity, Ideology spreads in society and education. Walk them through the textual reference to support these criteria to model the process for the rest of the exercise. Summarize the characteristics of Japanese nationalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the events that contributed to the development of this national identity. Responses will likely address Japanese willingness to adapt to new cultures and concepts, dedication to the emperor and other national symbols, a shared and proud history, a history of military success and expansion, and importance of community and nation over individualism. The concept of the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere (colloquially “Asia for Asians”) is one that both justified Japanese imperialism to many and simultaneously drew supporters that genuinely sought cooperation among East Asian nations in the face of western domination. It started with the "Black Ships" of 1854, when the USA forcibly opened up Japan for trade and westernization. Have students read the short piece from the nonprofit organization Facing History and Ourselves “Exclusion and Humiliation” from their 2014 publication The Nanjing Atrocities: Crimes of War. As we all know, modern states began to take on an increasingly nationalistic character in the wake of the French Revolution, especially in the nineteenth century. Present the following questions and ask students to discuss their responses briefly in small groups: Can others that are defined differently still be Americans? The Great Depression, starting later on in 1929, left Japan in a disadvantageous position (U.S Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, rising duties on Japanese goods by up to 200%), Price of silk fell, resulting in large-scale poverty and unemployment in Japan, This added up to the troubles Japan was already having during the 19th century, Hopes that new raw materials would help the people of Japan out of this economic crisis. Nationalism - Nationalism - European nationalism: The first full manifestation of modern nationalism occurred in 17th-century England, in the Puritan revolution. Japanese nationalism (国家主義, Kokka shugi?) Because of nationalism, most of the Western societies managed to promote reforms that appeal to all social classes. 1935 poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. How does the document characterize a common Japanese identity? Westernization and Japanese identity: “On Leaving Asia”. Appearing sporadically in the 19th century, the ideas of popular, liberal nationalism flourished in the course of the 1905-11 Constitutional Revolution (q.v. Kokutai: Japanese national identity on the eve of World War II. from the West, datsu-A nyu-O, or *“out of Asia, into Europe," ideology enforced the idea that Japan was above Asia and they wanted to claim a place in the West. An eight-nation coalition of the British, French, Germans, Austrians, Russians, Americans, Italians, and Japanese defeated both the Boxer Rebels and the Qing Army, driving Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu out of Beijing. http://tinyurl.com/hbpb4wh: This is the link to Fukuzawa Yukichi (popularly attributed), “On Leaving Asia (Datsu-A Ron),” Jiji shinpō, March 16, 1885. Japanese resentment toward the West and its imperial ambitions. In the early 20th century, Japan wanted to expand in Korea and Manchuria, since there was rich agriculture, which meant more resources. Pause during the reading and ask students to share a few of the earliest criteria they have found for either Western or Asian nations. Japanese nationalism - began in the second half of the 19th century with its first contact with the West - 1853: Commodore Matthew Perry arrived on the shores of Japan with his "Black Ships" to get Japan to open up to US demands for trade. in the nineteenth century. Unlike China and its other East Asian neighbors, Japan embraced Western-style industrialization and governmental reforms. Shelley Rose. An analysis statement that answers this question: How did nationalism and identity as defined in your summary contribute to Japanese militarism and aggression? It is useful to… Questions? Japanese nationalism (Japanese: 国粋主義, Hepburn: Kokusui shugi) is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. Source: Wikipedia at https://tinyurl.com/y7fok94c. Nationalism, ideology based on the idea that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. For a quick primer on the Japanese occupation of Korea, read the first section on Japan’s colonization of Korea in this 2017 Foreign Policy Research Institute essay by Lucien Ellington and Tawni Hunt Ferraini for teachers: Even though the western nations’ double standards of participating in their own imperial ventures while frustrating Japanese efforts had significant impacts on both the Japanese government and populace, this does not justify Japan’s actions nor does it link Japan’s mistreatment by the West to its participation in later atrocities such as The Rape of Nanjing. By Salvatore Babones | … Nationalism “A new and aggressive nationalism, different from its predecessors, emerged in Europe at the end of the 19th century… The new nationalism engaged the fierce us/them group emotions – loyalty inwards, aggression outwards – that characterize human relations at simpler sociological levels, like the family or the tribe. England had become the leading nation in scientific spirit, in commercial enterprise, and in political thought and activity. How Might We Compare and Contrast Three Early Civilizations? As you discuss the summary statements, students will likely draw parallels to the militarist aggression of Fascist Italy and Germany. A few of the students’ responses to the second question mentioned the difficulties that the Western powers had when breaking up the Austro–Hungarian and Ottoman empires in separate treaties at the end of World War I (which we had recently covered in a separate lesson). After completing their lists, have students answer these summary questions: (1) Why does the author believe that Japan must embark on a program of de-Asianization? The national identity of Japan and the Japanese people during the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa periods was in a state of flux. Speaker A: “The use of the bomb shortened the war and saved American lives.” Speaker B: “The United States might have been able to force the Japanese … to surrender simply by demonstrating the power of the bomb on a deserted island.” Speaker C: “The use of the bomb was justified because of the Japanese attack on PearlHarbor.” One student astutely recalled the situation in Palestine in particular, and we discussed the conflicting commitments of Great Britain there (Sykes–Picot Agreement, Balfour Declaration, and commitments to Arab insurgents). As 19th-century Marxists such as Friedrich Engels noted, this classical-liberal creed made it difficult to promote socialism within the United States. The three preceding readings detailed key factors leading to Japanese nationalism and the definition of Japanese national identity prior to World War II. What might be the motives behind the Japanese delegation’s desire for the racial equality clause? The question then, is how to prevent nationalism from spiraling out of control. The emperor was thought to be of god-like origin, Japanese people had an idea of exceptionalism; they wanted to build an empire in East Asia. Run by a tiny elite of pro-business, mostly pro-Western politicians, these parties used both policy and corruption to … Students should have access to the documents and their earlier work for this activity. The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States had created a wide gap between them and the West, leaving the two Asian nations behind technologically and military. This module is designed for an AP world history course, although it could also be used in a standard high school world history course. He was a medieval style dictator and ruled a feudal system. This resentment of Western Imperialism would evolve into excessive nationalism and motivate Japan to prosperity by the end of the 19th century. 19th century Nationalism & Imperialism Napoleonic Empire 1812 Congress of Vienna Austria, Russia, Prussia & England (later France) Age of Diplomacy Will govern by accord, diplomatic balance of power within Europe. Wikipedia Why is the equality clause denied even though it passed a vote? Since the intrusion by foreign powers in the late 19th century, Koreans have had to construct their identity in ways that pitted them against foreigners. Briefly describe Japan's philosophical and religious beliefs in the late 19th century and explain their influence on Japanese … It should be noted that the positive effects of nationalism is not being denied here, but it is crucial that a country’s policymaking process should not be ultimately being a hostage to nationalist forces. Originally based on a late 19th century German ideal of direct service to the ruler, Japan’s government now resembled a British style of rule by one of two centralized parties. Nationalism in the 19th century was very similar to patriotism. Wikipedia The government promoted unity and patriotism. To what extent have Japan’s actions supported the idea of racial equality in international affairs? The Japanese wanted to improve their position in Asia. Decides to restore order in the old, conservative ways – with KINGS. Japanese nationalism - began in the second half of the 19th century with its first contact with the West - 1853: Commodore Matthew Perry arrived on the shores of Japan with his "Black Ships" to get Japan to open up to US demands for trade. This document is provided by Kazumi Hasegawa, lecturer in the Department of History at the University of Washington. A drop in rice prices had made rice production in Japan very inefficient. The invasion of Manchuria and associated campaigns emboldened the leadership and provided the resources necessary to move the nation in what appeared to be a positive direction to a hopeful public. Japan lacked certain raw materials that were needed to fuel industrialization, such as coal. The caption, written from right to left, says: "With the help of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace." Japan had a desire for modernization, unlike any other country, and as the Qing Dynasty was not capable, Japan started to see itself as the superior Asian country. The pattern of humiliation at the hands of the Western powers continued in the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the founding of the League of Nations. With the trade being established, Japan experienced a large change: the emperor got political power and became known as "the Meiji - The Enlightened". encompasses a broad range of ideas and sentiments harbored by the Japanese people over the last two centuries regarding their native country, its cultural nature, political form and historical destiny. During the years leading up to the 1937 invasion of China and a broader entry into World War II, the Japanese government sought to crystalize a concept of Kokutai, translated to English alternately as “national polity” and “national essence.” The nationalism of the period generated a rejection of many of the same liberal democratic values the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes of Europe spurned. The Century of Humiliation serves as the basis for much of China’s political rhetoric and Chinese nationalism. In the early 21st century there was a resurgence of Japanese nationalism, much of it centring on how the history of Japan in the 20th century—particularly the period before and during World War II—was to be taught. Once the economic difficulties of the Great Depression struck, uncertainty and insecurity on the home front were destabilizing. One student questioned to what extent social Darwinism influenced Yukichi. “Leaping Patriotic Autumn,” a Japanese poster promoting patriotism. Nationalism in late 19th century Korea was a form of resistance movements, but with significant differences between the north and south. The Case of North and South Korea,” Foreign Policy Research Institute, April 26, 2017. https://www.utc.edu/asia-program/pdfs/modules2/pickering/reading8.pdf: This is the link to “Reading 8: Exclusion and Humiliation” from Fran Sterling et al., The Nanjing Atrocities: Crimes of War (Brookline, Massachusetts: Facing History and Ourselves National Organization, 2014), 111 –114. The product of this dynamic was a nationalism that emphasized Japanese exceptionalism among the peoples of Asia and a desire among many to build an empire in East Asia along the lines of the Western powers’ empires elsewhere in Asia, Africa, and the Mideast. The events that led to the downfall of the Tokugawa, the success of the Meiji Restoration, and the moves toward Westernization presented by the Meiji reformers (eg, the Iwakura Mission) set the stage for this module. Japan being an Asian nation had reinvented itself to become a force to reckon with. The Birth of Chinese Nationalism Chinese students marched into Tiananmen Square 100 years ago in a movement that is still shaping attitudes in the country today. Emphasize the experience of China in the Opium Wars and Japanese reactions to the unequal treaty demands of the United States and Europeans in the period leading up to the Meiji Restoration. Ask students to read the piece and answer the questions. "Nationalism 19Th Century" Essays and Research Papers . At a basic cultural level, Japanese fear a loss of control. Conservatism in the 19th century. The nationalism that asserted that Prussians were a nation and promoted the cultural unity of Prussians. As nationalism continued to grow, most of the politicians and national governments responded accordingly in order to strengthen and meet the demands of the people. Japanese national identity amid the rapid economic and social changes of the Meiji period was frequently torn between traditional Japanese and East Asian ideas and those of the Western powers. Generally Japan has had a history of a strong sense of nationalism through a strong military force. He was determined to establish trade between the US. Although it is often thought to be very old, nationalism did not become a great determining factor in history until the end of the 18th century. Fortunately, the notion of an ethnic state arose quickly when a student referenced Germany—both in dealing with the current immigration issues in Europe and concepts of German identity pushed by the Nazi regime. The famed samurai warriors were reduced to working as bureaucrats and writing wistful poetry because there were no wars to fight. In Japan, the Meiji Restoration of 1868 set the path for a modern, state-driven nationalism that would underpin the country’s economic and diplomatic resurgence as an imperial power. While these are essential, also challenge them to think more broadly about nationalism and generalize these concepts to other instances of militarism. In this context, ideologues and politicians pressed ancient Japanese mythology into service to create a … 7 Nationalism & Imperialism . The contrast between “Western” civilization and non-Western civilization is a focus in most world history courses, particularly following coverage of the Industrial Revolution and imperialism. By the end of the 19th century, nationalist ideas had begun to spread to Asia. Title IX Statement | EEO Statement | Privacy Statement | Accessibility | Web Requests. © 2012-2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. A successful war against old superpower Russia, the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), gained Japan some land and respect from the west. Meiji restoration begins, The Meiji established a limited democracy. This resentment of Western Imperialism would evolve into excessive nationalism and motivate Japan to prosperity by the end of the 19th century. Japan emerged out of the nineteenth century having suffered far fewer defeats from Western imperialism. Japanese nationalism (国家主義, Kokka shugi) is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. 4) Tagore’s Critique of 20th Century Nationalism Through the Japanese Example . ... "Meiji Conservatism" in The Cambridge History of Japan: The Nineteenth Century (vol. Culminating activity: Japanese nationalism and prewar identity. Its existence cannot be denied. The civilian government’s inability to offer meaningful solutions mirrored the difficulties faced by civilian governments in the Western democracies as well. Shogun was a military and political leader of the country for hundreds of years. Late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century victories in the Ryūkyūs and other islands, along with the acquisition of Formosa (now Taiwan) in the … Shoguns relied on tax revenue produced from agriculture, but this money was eventually not sufficient and the markets had to be modernized and expanded. Japanese nationalism was born at the end of the nineteenth century. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Divide students into working groups (four or five individuals) and have each group create a chart to summarize their findings. Most students identified shared values that reflected the ideals enshrined in our founding documents. In both Europe and the United States, Japanese and other East Asian migrants faced significant discrimination. Ask the groups to create: A list of the five most important features of Japanese national identity as expressed by the authors of these documents, Textual references to the sources that best support and define each of these five identified features. The Japanese were superior. (国家主義, Kokka shugi?) Start studying Industrial revolution, nationalism, and imperialism in 19th century. encompasses a broad range of ideas and sentiments harbored by the Japanese people over the last two centuries regarding their native country, its cultural nature, political form and historical destiny. Source: Wikipedia at https://tinyurl.com/q3f3qlo. Some students observed that Yukichi believed that there are racial differences among East Asians. Political scientist Suisheng Zhao argues that nationalism in China is not monolithic but exists in various forms, including political, liberal, ethnical, and state nationalism. With the example of the failed Chinese resistance to the West, Japan signed the humiliating Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854. Shintoism is reintroduced as the dominant religious ideology, Japan wanted to be equal with western countries, because they were seen as equal powers to the rising Japan, The relationship was, however, often strained and rarely lead to equal treatment, Japan wanted to include racial equality clauses in the the Charter of the League of Nations, Japanese, while themselves enforcing racist ideology, were also facing similar attitudes. In which John Green teaches you about Nationalism. Transition and ask students if other nations can define themselves as they have just attempted to do for the United States. The Consequences of Low Fertility Rates in South Korea, Singapore, and Japan, “On Leaving Asia (Datsu-A Ron)” by Fukuzawa Yukichi, https://www.fpri.org/article/2017/04/nations-prosper-case-north-south-korea/, https://www.utc.edu/asia-program/pdfs/modules2/pickering/reading8.pdf, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/japan/kokutai.pdf. Japan’s victory in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895, followed by victory in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, were key turning points in Japan’s emergence as the strongest imperial power in the region. Datsu-A Ron was an editorial that was published in 1885 that argued for Japanese leaving the Qing dynasty and Joseon Korea. Give a brief review of the Meiji Restoration period. The nationalism that asserted that Prussians were a nation and promoted the cultural unity of Prussians. The terms were not mutually exclusive, merging into the sonnō jōi(revere the emperor, expel the barbaria… Japanese exceptionalism became a key component of nationalism and justified the military expansion of the empire against its Asian neighbors and engagement with the broader world in World War II. Late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century victories in the Ryūkyūs and other islands, along with the acquisition of Formosa (now Taiwan) in the Sino–Japanese War and Korea in the Russo–Japanese War, shaped the public’s willingness to embrace Japan’s growing militarism. Summarize the characteristics of Japanese nationalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and the events that contributed to the development of this national identity.! Nonetheless, the Meiji government took steps to further the development of a distinct Japanese nationalism that rejected elements of both Chinese and Western culture. Some prominent daimyō promoted the concept of fukko (a return to the past), while others promoted ōsei (the Emperor's supreme authority). This module traces this transformation from its origins in the Meiji reforms to the formal invasion of China in 1937. With the selective embrace of Westernization, new economic and cultural ideas clashed with traditional Japanese and East Asian norms. The discussion is likely to generate a wide variety of responses, but highlight certain non-negotiables that arise in both questions (rule of law, egalitarianism, freedom, etc.). Ask students to answer the following questions: How does Makino Nobuaki support the Japanese argument for the inclusion of a racial equality clause? The British also helped with establishing a navy. The product of this dynamic was a nationalism that emphasized Japanese exceptionalism among the peoples of Asia and a desire among many to build an empire in East Asia along the lines of the Western powers’ empires elsewhere in Asia, Africa, and the Mideast. Increasing population also required more living space. The reading went quickly, and there was time to explore this topic during the discussion as a result. Japanese nationalism (Japanese: 国粋主義, Hepburn: Kokusui shugi) is the nationalism that asserts that the Japanese are a monolithic nation with a single immutable culture, and promotes the cultural unity of the Japanese. Views of Japan in the West David Powers of the BBC wrote: “When Japan began its military adventures in China in 1931, it was a society in turmoil. Japan's Nichiren Buddhists, with a few exceptions, fell right in line with imperial nationalism and militarism. The students should support each quality listed with a specific reference to the text that supports the criterion. Some countries, such as the Netherlands and England, seem to have had a clear national identity well before the 19th century. This idea was dissolved during the Meiji government and Japanese supremacy was being enforced. Start studying Industrial revolution, nationalism, and imperialism in 19th century. The students cited the hypocrisy of the Western powers and the difficulties of giving up their empires. This complete module with links to all materials may be downloaded as a PDF here. Due to industrialisation, Japan was growing into an economic powerhouse in the East. https://www.fpri.org/article/2017/04/nations-prosper-case-north-south-korea/: This is the link to Lucien Ellington and Tawni Ferrarini, “Why Some Nations Prosper? 2 would help in comparison of the documents. ), and later they were transformed into a state-sponsored form of ethno-nationalism during the Pahlavi period (1925-78). I do not mean to deny the predominant position of nationalism in modern Japan, or elsewhere for that matter. With the example of the failed Chinese resistance to the West, Japan signed the humiliating Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854. People had lived in a society where they served their leaders loyally: this ideology continued. Overview. Source: Wikipedia at https://tinyurl.com/yd7w7lml. Lead students in a brief discussion of their narrative responses. Peasants/artisans were the vast majority in the society, Under the shogunate, people of Japan were all to obey the shogun, and as a result of this, they got accustomed to a culture of following the leader with no questions asked - obedience and a sense of honor grew important in the society. After the last quarter of the 19th century, nationalism in Europe did not exist. 1 Chinese nationalism is a more ambiguous reality than it might seem. This rose ideas of supremacy in the population. The Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States had created a wide gap between them and the West, leaving the two Asian nations behind technologically and military. As students read the primary source, have them list at least five qualities of each that the author describes. In the Sino-Japanese war (1894-95), new land was given to Japan. For 250 years, Japan existed in quiet and peace under the Tokugawa Shoguns (1603-1853). The gain of new land as well as the frustration from losing some strengthened their view of needing strong military forces to be successful and be able to defend themselves against western powers and Russia, Beliefs of national unity and patriotism were reinforced by the Meiji government. NICHIREN BUDDHISM AND JAPANESE NATIONALISM . Before the Meiji government, the Emperor was technically at the top of the society, but he held no real power. Tagore saw Japan as a symbol of hope as well as caution. The shogun was the actual political and military leader. Japan was forced to open itself to the West, but its people resented the concessions it was forced to give to America and other European nations. After students have a chance to discuss with their groups, gather the class as a whole and solicit some key takeaways from each question. Called the Chinese weak "monkeys" and spread other racist ideology. The treaties ending both these wars, as well as World War I, left many Japanese frustrated and angry, as they saw many of the spoils of war taken from them by the Western powers. of the 19th century brought the Japanese to realize that to struggle against the strangers the tools of the West must be forged and handled properly. However, the content and pedagogical strategies for the module are applicable for any high school teachers whose curricula include the development of East Asian states in the pre-World War II era or the development of extreme nationalism and the rise of authoritarian regimes. In the 19 th century, after a long period of isolationism, China and then Japan came under pressure from the West to open to foreign trade and relations. As for the inclusion of non-Japanese elements adopted by Japan, students emphasized that ideas from China and India had many centuries to be adapted to the Japanese character, rather than mere decades. Before the Meiji government, China was seen as a sort of big brother to look up to when it came to ideology, philosophy and such. One student specifically noted that the Japanese “tried to completely wipe out Korean culture by teaching only Japanese in Korean schools.” Another noted, “Koreans were treated as inferior and made scapegoats; [the Japanese] were just as racist as the West.” Although we had not extensively covered the Japanese occupation of Korea, this was an excellent opportunity to address it. [Source: David Powers, BBC, February 17, 2011 ***] “By the beginning of the 20th century, Japan was beginning to catc… Less than 80 years previously, it had been forced out of two-and-a-half centuries of self-imposed seclusion from the rest of the world, when the Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown, and Japan embarked on rapid modernisation under Emperor Meiji. Try to draw out conclusions about Fukuzawa Yukichi’s perspective on the Western nations, and the place that he and other Meiji reformers saw Japan occupying in East Asia and the world stage at the conclusion of the century. Yet 1850 -1914 marks an era where nationalism, imperialism, and industrialization are particularly entwined. Nationalism and Imperialism . Will likely draw parallels to the document all over the World carved new nation-states out of old.... Nationalism - nationalism - European nationalism: the concept of individualism arose.! Classical-Liberal creed made it difficult to promote socialism within the United States the,... Though it would be … Japanese nationalism before 1900 s political rhetoric Chinese. To restore order in the late nineteenth century into working groups ( four or individuals! Causes of Japanese expansion - nationalism - European nationalism: the concept of nationalism the... 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